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Distance Vector Routing Protocols

 

 
RIP Routing & Configuration

In this lesson we will introduce you to further more to Dynamic Routing, as this is a core requirement in your preparation for Cisco's CCNA exam. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is the first dynamic routing protocol ever invented and it's important to understand how it works while learning for your CCNA certification.

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) was the first protocol used in dynamic routing. Although modern networks do not use it today, it's still popular in small networks because of its simplicity and in academic environments as a starting point of understanding how the routing process is working.  Thus why Cisco includes it on the CCNA exam.

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How Distance Vector Protocols Work

Today’s lesson will cover Distance Vector Routing Protocols. Before continuing this discussion, it is important to understand how dynamic routing protocols are classified. Dynamic routing protocols are generally classified as either Distance Vector or Link State. For sake of simplicity, we will concise this document to distance vector routing protocols.

Distance as the name suggest is the length between two points and Vector defines the direction. Therefore, the name is derived from the fact that routes are advertised as vectors of distance and direction. The distance is defined as a metric and direction being the next-hop router and exit interface. Examples of distance vector routing protocol include: Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Cisco Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). Most distance vector routing protocol are based on work performed by R.E Bellman and L.R Ford and usually referred as Bellman Ford algorithm.

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Routing Loops

This document discus some basic details about Routing Loop and how it can be avoided.

A loop in a simplest form is a way of repeating a statement a number of times until some way of ending the loop occurs. For example: a “for loop” is repeated from definite number of times. A “do while” loop continues until some specified condition is true or false.

With regard to routing protocols, a routing loop is an inconsistency caused by either old or bad routing information, causing a packet to move back and forth between a set of routers. The worst part is that they can even occur in well designed network and have a detrimental effect on performance. Typical symptoms include: packet loss, delay and increased link utilization.

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Count to Infin, Split Horizon, Rt Poison, Hold Down Timers

This lesson covers some important aspects of loop avoidance techniques used by distance vector routing protocol. It is essential for any engineer not only to configure a technology but he/she is also proficient in the technical details of how it works!

Routing loops occurs due to old (or bad) routing information. The major cause is the slow periodic update. For rest of this section Figure-1 will be our reference point.

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Triggered Updates

Today’s lesson covers some important details (briefly) about convergence techniques employed by distance vector routing protocols. This includes: route invalidation timer, triggered update and dead time.

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